Behavior/Emotional Social Skills Tracking

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Interpersonal Skills

General Information

BESST Web consists of two interlocking instruments; the Benchmark Assessment Tool and the Performance Assessment Tool. These are two measures for assessing the acquisition of social emotional learning skills from kindergarten through eighth grade. They are designed to be subjective teacher (school social worker, psychologist, or counselor) and self-report measures used to regularly monitor the development of social emotional learning skills.

The assessments were developed to measure recognized and empirically validated skills related to social emotional learning. Each item on these measures has been thoroughly researched and demonstrated to have strong content validity to aid in the early identification of students who are not developing SEL skills in an age appropriate fashion. When used as recommended, the results can help to evaluate individual student development as well as provide grade, school, and district-level feedback toward instructional objectives.

History of Development of Benchmark Assessment Tool and Performance Assessment Tool

Together the BAT and PAT were developed based on two concepts. First, the ideas put forward by Dr. George Sugai that Response to Intervention is useful in both the behavioral (social and emotional) and the academic area ("School-Wide Positive Behavior Support and Response to Intervention" by George Sugai, Ph.D. University of Connecticut, Storrs OSEP Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports Center for Behavioral Education and Research). Additionally, the belief that behavior and social/emotional learning are associated with academic learning which was put forward by Weissburg and Zins. In their book Effects of Social and Emotional Learning on Academic Success, 2003 the following is noted:

Data has been accumulating supporting the effectiveness of social and emotional learning programs in lowering the risk of problems like school violence and youthful drug and alcohol use. According to the book, another benefit has emerged: social and emotional learning facilitates academic learning.

Social and emotional learning is defined as a set of skills that educators can teach to students, such as: how to recognize and manage emotions, set and achieve positive goals, make and carry out responsible decisions, and establish and maintain positive relationships with others.

In August 2003, Illinois enacted legislation requiring that schools develop policies on ways to teach and assess students' social and emotional skills. The Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning, based at UIC and headed by Weissburg, will work during the next year with the Illinois State Board Of Education and the Illinois Children's Mental Health Partnership to incorporate social and emotional development as part of the Illinois Learning Standards.

BESST Web is based on these learning standards. Using the assessments fulfills a district's obligation to assess student progress toward developing these essential SEL skills. BESST Web is designed to enable educators to acquire data within an RtI model.

The second major concept was the research surrounding the measurement procedures for Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) by Deno and colleagues through the Institute for Research and Learning Disabilities at the University of Minnesota in the 1970s-80s (e.g., Deno and Mirkin, 1977; Deno, 1985; Deno and Fuchs, 1987; Shinn, 1989).

In addition to these two concepts, the initial development of the BAT and PAT were based on ISBE's 3 SEL Goals. Research utilized to establish the three Illinois State Board of Education Goals in SEL was done in the late 1990's and published in books and essays in the early 2000s (CASEL, Safe and Sound, 2005).

Since the BAT and PAT are based on the ISBE Goals, the above concepts (and the research upon which they are founded) implicate content validity. The BAT and PAT authors, a practicing school social worker and school psychologist, have always been motivated by the desire to improve the educational outcomes for students, especially those most at risk. Research on the measures reliabilities is on-going and done in association with the Department of School Psychology at Illinois State University and Eureka College.

History of the Benchmark Assessment Tool and Functionality within the RtI Model

The Benchmark Assessment Tool as a Universal Screener

The primary function of the Benchmark Assessment Tool is that of a Tier 1 Universal Screener. Scoring can be done by teacher evaluation (K-8) or self-report (6-8). The BAT was designed with the Likert Scale for Scoring. This was done due to the brevity of items on the instruments and because the focus was: To determine the student's current level of development in relation to the SEL Learning Standards. The Likert Scale is a type of summative rating scale developed in 1932 and has been used widely in psychological scales of attitudes, since it is unidimensional. Inclusion of the Likert Scale allowed for high reliability and reduced time required to complete the scoring process (a matter of a minute or two per student). This allows a classroom teacher to complete an average size class in a half-hour or less.

Additionally, Likert Scales are easy to construct and usually give the respondent five to seven alternative choices along a continuum. According to Cohen and Swerdlik in their book Psychological Testing and Assessment, "Likert scales are usually reliable, which accounts for their widespread popularity" (Pg. 198).

After the Scoring is completed tables and graphs can be generated with the use of Cut Scores to identify those students who are "At-Risk", "Some Risk", or "Low Risk" of development in the SEL Domain.

Teachers are asked to complete the Benchmark Assessment three times a year. With each session averaging about 25 minutes, this means that the total yearly time commitment for a teacher to use the BAT on BESST Web is about an hour and a half. This is significantly different from all other "universal screeners" for behavior where the time commitment for three benchmarks could add up to 6 to 8 hours. Additionally, other instruments designed to "screen" for behavior and SEL issues have NOT been related to the Learning Standards set forth by the Illinois State Board of Education or those identified by research as critical to adequate development in the behavior or social/emotional domain.

History of the Performance Assessment Tool and Progress Monitoring Tracking Sheets and Functionality within the RtI Model

The Performance Assessment Tool as a Measure of Progress

Using the data from each benchmarking session, students can be identified for possible Tier 2 Interventions. The primary function of the PAT is to evaluate the effectiveness of a specific, selected Intervention provided to these Tier 2 students. Note: The BESST Web Interventions Section gives specific, research based programs and ideas that can used to address any deficit areas that are identified.

The Performance Assessment Tool consists of specific skill development in the Social Emotional area. However, like a curriculum based measure the PAT is also an indicator of overall proficiency of the child/adolescent to learn the skills in the Social Emotional Domain. The items on the Performance Assessment Tool are expansions of the skills that are identified on the Benchmark Assessment Tool. Consequently, there are approximately 3 items on the PAT for each corresponding item on the BAT.

The larger number of items on the PAT requires a more efficient rating method. A four point item rating scale was chosen so that each item can reflect a range of valuses and strengthen reliability. The use of "multi-point rather than dichotomous" rating of items allows an adequate level of reliability to be achieved (Cicchetti, Showalter, & Tyrer, 1985). Moreover, it shortens rater time and does not overwhelm them with too many choices. Finally, it produces a 4 point rating system; which works very well for equating a student's success on IEP SEL Objectives; which are commonly written based on a ratio of 4.

The PAT provides a guide to the School Social Worker (or Interventionist) to help target the specific areas that are in need of intervention efforts. The probes also allow for progress monitoring and indicate a student's response-to-intervention.

The students that are identified for Tier 2 intervention, it is recommended that the school social worker completes an interview with the classroom teacher using the PAT. This allows the social worker to ask follow up questions and gain relevant background knowledge about the student. Furthermore, this interview serves as a "pretest" and allows for a platform once progress monitoring begins. These results are then entered on-line. The PAT breaks down each of the benchmarks on the BAT into more specific skills. The social worker then provides tier 2 intervention on a weekly basis and can use the PAT to progress monitor. At the end of the intervention (typically 8 weeks), the social worker and teacher complete the PAT as a post-test and again enter the results on-line. If the student has made acceptable progress, no further intervention is needed. However, if acceptable progress has not been made, it may be necessary to consider alternative interventions, a Functional Behavior Assessment, or a referral for special education.

At the present time, we are working on obtaining scientifically validated research using the Performance Assessment Tool. Consequently, it has not yet been operationalized. Until then, BESST Web users are able to use the Progress Monitoring Tracking Sheet as an additional method to assess a student's progress at tier 2.

The Progress Monitoring Tracking Sheets

Progress Monitoring Tracking Sheets can be obtained and printed off for use after each Tier 2 skill building session. The tracking sheets are designed to be specifically associated with the objectives established for each of the 3 SEL Goal areas (Self-Awareness and Self-Management, Social Awareness and Interpersonal Skills, and Decision Making and Citizenship). The PM Tracking Sheets use the Trise Rating Variable Model. This model has been widely used in a variety of mediums as a simple evaluative measure.

Trise Rating Variable (Good, Questionable, Poor)

The Trise Rating Variable is a general statement of the overall quality of development in a skill area.

"GOOD" — Strong and above moderate. Skills appear secure. Able to demonstrate skills at an adequate or above adequate level.

"QUESTIONABLE" — Marginal to Weak. Uncertain maintenance and demonstration of skills. Student may appear to understand the skill but lacks the performance for mastery.

"POOR" — Weak and Below. Skill development is still at-risk. Student likely does not express basic understanding of the skill. Requires continued intervention.

The items on the tracking sheets break down each of the benchmarks on the BAT into more specific skills, tasks, and behaviors. Each item can serve as a SEL topic for intervention. Afterwards, the student's performance can be recorded and monitored over time (much like a running record). The tracking sheets also allow for easy communication with the teacher and parents.

The Benchmark Assessment Tool, Performance Assessment Tool, and Progress Monitoring Tracking Sheets and Functionality within the RtI Model

If it is determined that a special education referral or Tier 3 Intervention is necessary, the information already collected on the BAT, PAT, and/or PM Tracking Sheets would simplify the process. For example, you would have norms indicating that a discrepancy of behavioral performance exists in relation to peers at the classroom, building, district, and aggregate levels. Utilizing the data from the PAT or the Progress Monitoring Tracking Sheets would also show a discrepancy between a SEL goal and the student's response to interventions over time.

The goal writing process is much easier as well. The benchmark on the BAT can serve as the IEP goal and the related items on the PAT or the PM Tracking Sheet become the objectives. Our Goals and Objectives Section is set up to easily aid in this process. As a result you would already have the performance levels AND the goals would be related to the Illinois State SEL Standards. As a bonus, we have included a section for establishing a FBA and BIP, usually a Tier 3 tool.



What the BAT offers is the opportunity to identify those students who are "At-Risk" or at "Some Risk" of NOT developing the skills essential to proper achievement of SEL goals. These three goals of Self-Awareness, Social Awareness, and Decision Making/Citizenship are critical to the overall development of a healthy child (Elias et al, 1997, and CASEL Safe and Sound, 2005).

Self-Awareness is based on the ability to attend and focus on the work at hand and to continue to try even when there are problems or frustrations. Social Awareness is the ability to work with others both their peers and adults, and to be effective communicators. Decision Making/Citizenship incorporates the above skills with the ability to accumulate knowledge and to problem solve with the result that they will have success in academic pursuits and become effective members of their communities, as adults, workers, and parents.

Since the BAT is a universal screener that can be used with any population, it gives identification to those students development in each of the areas mentioned above. After the teacher inputs the results for each student through the BAT Scoring Section, the Tables and Graphs available through the Reports Section clearly establish those students who are most likely in need of assistance and instruction in the classroom or more directed intervention provided by School Social Workers, School Psychologists, or School Counselors.

The relation between the Discipline Data and BAT measures illustrates the way in which the BAT benchmark goals may be used to allocate resources and plan student support. Once a strategic support intervention has been implemented the PAT can be utilized to evaluate the impact of the intervention on the development of the particular deficit area.

If interventions beyond those that can be provided by the classroom teacher are required scores indicating areas of Risk can be coordinated with resources through the Interventions Section. Tier 2 interventions can be implemented and progress monitoring can occur using the Performance Assessment Tool or the Progress Monitoring Tracking sheets. Though both the PAT and PMT sheets are utilized for progress monitoring, they differ in several ways. First, the PAT is based more on a general progress as demonstrated in the classroom, where the PMT sheets are a specific analysis of growth in relation to a specific intervention provided to the child. Second, the PAT offers an overview of growth across a specific period of time (normally 8 weeks), while the PMT sheets show incremental growth from session to session. Finally, since the PAT is rated with the teacher and interventionist in relation to other students it is more likely to be objective, while the PMT sheets are a running record compiled by the Interventionist and more likely to contain a smaller degree of subjectivity.

If the student continues to show limited growth, then movement to Tier 3 services should be considered. This may be a Functional Behavioral Assessment and/or a referral for a special education evaluation. Using the Goals and Objectives Section may assist with writing parts of the IEP.

Advantages of Using the BAT and PAT to Assess SEL Development

The items on both assessments were specifically designed to assess the core components of social emotional learning. Because the BAT and PAT are directly related to the ISBE SEL Goals they are linked to the "process through which children and adults acquire the knowledge, attitudes, and skills they need to recognize and manage their emotions, demonstrate caring and concern for others, establish positive relationships, make responsible decisions, and handle challenging situations constructively" (ISBE website on SEL). The measures are linked to one another in the same way that phonemic awareness is associated to reading and by their relationship help determine future student progress in the SEL area.

The BAT is an indicator of the effectiveness of efforts to develop the three basic goals established by the State of Illinois Board of Education in association with the Illinois Children's Mental Health Partnership. In creating these goals the Illinois Children's Mental Health Partnership, with technical support from the Collaborative for Academic, Social and Emotional Learning (CASEL), notes that SEL " fundamental not only to children's social development but to their health, ethical development, citizenship, motivation to achieve, and academic learning as well" (Elias et al, 1997, and CASEL Safe and Sound, 2005).

According to research, (CASEL, Safe and Sound, 2005) children competent in the social and emotional area are skilled in five areas:

  • Self-Awareness
  • Management of emotions and behavior
  • Social Awareness
  • Relationship Skills
  • Responsible Decision Making

Each of these items is specifically present for every grade level on the Benchmark Assessment Tool. This is advantageous as the Benchmark Assessment Tool shares a strong relationship with ISBE's SEL goals. Underdeveloped skills in any of these areas may place the youth in an "at-risk" category when compared to his peers.

The BAT and PAT measures, by design, are indicators of each of the Five Basic Social and Emotional Areas. For example, the BAT does not measure all possible components of a child's mental health, but by surveying the teachers who have daily interaction with their children, the BAT measures the observations they have made of a child's behaviors in relation to the Five Competencies. The notion of BAT as an indicator is a critical one. It is this feature of BAT that distinguishes it from other assessments and puts it in a class of assessments known as General Outcome Measures in contrast Mastery-based assessment. Mastery-based formative assessment, such as end of unit tests, addresses the question, "has the student learned the content taught?" In contrast, GOMs are designed to answer the question, "With general outcome measures (GOMs), student performance on a common task is sampled over time to assess long-term growth and development?" (Kaminski and Cummings, 2007).

As a GOM, the BAT and PAT were developed based on concepts developed by research in the area of Curriculum Based Measurements. Like CBMs, the BAT and PAT were developed to be economical and efficient indicators of a student's progress toward achieving an important SEL outcome. Although the BAT and PAT measures were "developed to be linked to the local curriculum" like CBM (Kaminski & Good, 1996, pg 113-142), it is recognized that the BAT and PAT measures are generic and draw content from sources other than any specific school's curriculum.

However, neither of these instruments is a Mastery Measure. End of unit tests in a curriculum are one example of mastery measurement. Teachers teach skills and then test for mastery of the skills just taught. They then teach the next set of skills in the sequence and assess mastery of those skills. Both the type and difficulty of the skills assessed change from test to test; therefore scores from different times in the school year cannot be compared.

Therefore, the use of cutoff points, "Cut Scores", on the BAT is extremely unlikely to meet subsequent behavioral/social/emotional development unless additional instructional intervention is provided. Scores that fall between the benchmark goal and the cutoff score represent patterns of performance where approximately 50% of students are likely to have not achieved age appropriate skills in the SEL Domain. Students with scores in this category will likely require strategic planning on the part of educators to determine appropriate levels of support the student needs to meet subsequent SEL goals.

General Normative Sample

The General norms of the BAT and PAT are based on the sample of 197 children who have become participants in the BESST Web aggregate. Although not a representative sample of the general population it does offer a good cross section of students. The building selected for the study is a 3-5 school with a low to middle income population. The city in which it is located has a population around 30,000 but is part of a larger urban-suburban environment. The General norms can be used as male or female or combined norms depending on the purpose and type of intervention being considered.

Current and Ongoing Research Using the Benchmark Assessment Tool

Figure 1 below demonstrates the instructional utility of these decision rules. It also shows the relationship of a school wide Positive Behavior System and BAT ratings for the same group.

The above Scatter Plot is typical for the comparison utilized to establish coefficients of correlation between "Tickets" received by students and teacher scores given to the same students on the Benchmark Assessment Tool. The following correlations were established at the Third, Fourth, and Fifth Grade levels in the pilot school utilized for this study.

Third GradeFourth GradeFifth Grade
Students = 60Students = 78Students = 59
Number of Classrooms = 4 (3 Regular and 1 SE Instructional)Number of Teachers = 5 (3 Regular and 2 SE Instructional)Number of Teachers = 5 (3 Regular and 2 SE Instructional)
r = -0.391r = -0.633r = -0.496

A grade 3-5 pilot school using BESST Web wanted to compare how the Benchmark Assessment Tool compared to the school-wide positive discipline/behavior system. This system is well known for rewarding students for displaying positive behaviors. Behavioral "expectations" are taught to the students on a daily basis. Students are given "PAWS" for demonstrating these pro-social behaviors. There are weekly and monthly incentives for students who are able to acquire a predetermined number of PAWS.

Students are also issued "Tickets" for displaying poor behavior. Examples of infractions that result in receiving a ticket include: repeatedly talking without permission, foul language, uncompleted homework, fighting, lying, etc.

The above correlations indicate a comparison between the positive discipline/behavior system and the results of the winter benchmarking using BESST Web. The higher the number of Behavior or "PAW Tickets" (shown on the vertical line) indicates a greater level of problem behavior observed by the teacher, while the horizontal line displays the teacher's rating of that student on the Benchmark Assessment Tool.

Total students screened were 197 in 11 classrooms. The correlation between Tickets and BAT scores across the 197 students was -0.518. This overall correlation is in the fair to good range. The overall correlation would have been stronger if the 3rd grade correlation score (-0.391) had been stronger. The 4th grade (-0.633) and 5th grade (-0.496) are stronger and probably more indicative of the type of relationship that exists between the negative consequences measure (Tickets) and the SEL developmental ratings given to students with stronger development in the 3 SEL Goal areas identified in the BAT scoring. It is suspected that the lower correlation seen in the third grade classrooms may be a function of either their relative immaturity in the area of SEL development or their less oppositional and conduct type of issues reflected in lower number of Tickets being issued. It is also possible that teachers are less likely to give Tickets to third graders, under the assumption that "they need some time to learn the (PBS) system and its expectations and consequences.

It is recommended that educators carefully consider the progress of all their students on all goals surveyed as they evaluate their instruction. Most students who meet a benchmark goal will need continued, high-quality instruction to hit the next target. However, it is believed that approximately 20% of students who achieve scores at or above the benchmark goal may still need supplemental support to achieve the next goal. Teachers will use additional information that they have about their students, as well as a pattern of performance across the entire BAT Goal areas, to plan support for their students.

Unfamiliar teachers may have had trouble conceptualizing behavior as they were completing the Benchmark Assessment. Further research needs to be completed in order to determine if the results change as the teachers become more familiar with the standards and what they are expected to teach.

Ongoing research involves the utilization of Test-Retest and Inter-rater reliability. These studies are being done in conjunction with the Illinois State University, Department of School Psychology as well as researchers from Eureka College.

BESST Web Reliability Data as of Summer 2009

A team from Eureka College analyzed data provided by the authors of BESST Web to establish test-retest reliability on the Benchmark Assessment Tool (BAT). Composite scores from the winter and spring benchmark periods of 197 students in grades 3 through 5 for the 2008-2009 school year were provided.

3rdN = 57r = .80
4thN = 66r = .89
5thN = 54r = .84

Note: Content validity has not yet been established, but work is underway. If you wish additional information on the Results Analysis from the Eureka College Team, go to our contact us section to email a request for more information.


Constraints and Considerations in utilizing the BAT and PAT

In October, 2007 A Discussion Forum Report from the Garrison Institute and Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning (CASEL) notes:

The purpose for assessment should be clearly identified and articulated...

The three areas noted are 1. "Holding schools accountable" for SEL standards, 2. Providing feedback for school administrators, or 3. Giving researchers (and administrators) data about the effectiveness of efforts in furthering development of the SEL goals.

BESST Web offers important support in all three of these areas. However, as the Garrison Institute/CASEL Discussion indicates several pit falls must be considered. This document notes:

"There can be negative consequences of conducting SEL assessments if the results are not handled in a sensitive manner in line with their purpose. Moreover, conducting SEL assessments without any follow up may lead to negative consequences."

From the beginning the purpose of the BAT and PAT has been to provide assessment tools that identify students in need of more intensive intervention and feedback on both general curriculum efforts and intensive intervention efforts in relation to the three ISBE SEL goals. The Garrison Institute and CASEL participants, noted that "educators want tools to help them identify at risk kids" and teachers "tend to focus on (and observe) bad behavior rather than seeing it in the context of social and emotional learning as reflections of lack of SEL competencies."

To address this, it is necessary to interject the observations or evaluative capabilities of a professional in the social or psychological domain. The involvement of these related service providers allow for greater clarity and objectivity in the identification, selection of appropriate intervention, and monitoring progress of the student within the structure of a particular intervention.

It is important that the professional collects data. The utilization of the data is connected to the "...teacher operating at the classroom, to school, to policy, and to statewide standards" (Discussion Forum Garrison Institute, et al, 2007). Additionally, the professional can build support systems within schools for assessment of data collection and for appropriate understanding of the data.

A limitation exists with teachers who are unfamiliar with the SEL learning standards.

Utilization of the Self-Report Format

Self-Report Format for Sixth, Seventh, and Eighth Grade Students

The question here is whether a Self-Report format can be useful to assess SEL Goals. As with the Teacher report format used on the K-5 Benchmark Assessment Tool (BAT), the Self-Report format used on the 6-7 grade level BAT are based on the ISBE Goals and all the research mentioned earlier is implicated in the content validity of the measures as well as their sensitivity to student change.

Perhaps more relevant to the utility of a Self-Report over a Teacher report format for these grade levels is research on other self-report measures which has indicated their viability in measuring social-emotional factors, in particular with adolescents. Following is a summary of several such Self-Report assessments.

The Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA): Youth Self-Report (Achenbach and Rescorla, 2001) has been shown to have high positive correlation with indicators of Self-Awareness and Self-Management (Internalizing Problems .80, Anxiety .83, and Depression and Social Stress .70) when compared with Self-Report indicators on the BASC-2 (Reynolds and Kampaus, 2004). Social Awareness correlations are equally as strong but have a negative correlation (Interpersonal Relations -.70 and Withdrawn -.56) to the BASC-2 (Reynolds and Kampaus, 2004).

Another group of studies indicated correlations between the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI; Derogatis, 1993) and the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II; Beck, Steer, and Brown, 1996) in relation to the "composite index" of the BASC-2 SRP were moderate to strong in areas associated with Self-Awareness and Social Awareness (Anxiety, Depression, and Somatization "all around.50", Social Stress, Sense of Inadequacy, and Self-Esteem in the .50 range.) (Reynolds and Kampaus, 2004). Further, a review from studies done in relation to the MMPI-2 (Butcher, Graham, Ben-Porath, Tellegen, Dahstrom, and Kaemmer, 2001) indicated that areas loosely associated with Decision Making and Citizenship (as seen by factors on the BASC-2 SRP and MMPI-2) were moderately positive, these included: Alcohol Abuse .52 and School Maladjustment .58).

However, it must be noted that in research done comparing Teacher Ratings and Student Self Reports correlations have been weak (mean correlation .20) (Achenbach et al., 1987). Reynolds and Kampaus, 2004 in attempting to resolve this weak correlation note that on their BASC2 scales, "few scales on the SRP are found on the TRS or PRS." This is not the case with the Benchmark Assessment Tool. All items are directly related to the SEL Goals. Further research in this area is being considered.

Communication of Results

Professionals familiar with the BAT and PAT should communicate the results from these instruments in a manner that minimizes the potential for misuse. When giving BAT and PAT results to a teacher, parent, or another professional, scores should be accompanied by interpretations and by warnings about their limitations. Guidelines for the appropriate use and communication of test information are provided in the APA Ethical Guidelines, the National Association of School Psychologists, and other professional organizations ethical guidelines, as well as, in some cases, in state and federal laws.

It is important to share results with respondents. This courtesy is essential for building trust so that the professional can return to the respondent for BAT, PAT, and other information in the future.

Implication for Teachers

Confusion can come if teachers become too rigid with only teaching the skills on the BAT for their particular grade level. Social skill development is not rigidly pragmatic and sequential. Children learn different "life lessons" at different times. This is based on their environment and unique experiences. The BAT is a universal screening instrument designed to provide a way for identifying students with SEL deficits when compared to their peers. The BAT is a general guideline for social skill instruction and should not be used as the sole means of making programming decisions.

Teachers are encouraged to provide social skill instruction when situations or "teachable moments" arise.


Achenbach, T.M., McConaughy, S.H., & Howell, C.T. (1987) Child/adolescent behavioral and emotional problems: Implications of cross-information correlations for situational specificity. Psychological Bulletin, 101, 213-232.

Achenbach, T.M. & Rescorla, L.A. (2001). Manual for the ASEBA school-age forms and profiles. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth, and Families.

Butcher, J.N., Graham, J.R., Ben-Porath, Y.S., Tellegen, Y.S., Dahstrom, W.G. & Kaemmer, B (2001). Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.

Cicchetti, D.V., Showalter, D., & Tyler, P.J. (1985). The effect of number of rating scale categories on levels of interrater reliability: A Monte Carlo investigation. Applied Psychological Measurement, 9, 31-36.

Derogatis, L. R. (1993). Brief Symptom Inventory. Minneapolis, MN: National Computer Systems.

Elias, M. J. (2003). Enhancing school-based prevention and youth development through coordinated social, emotional, and academic learning. American Psychologist, 58, 466-474

Durlak, J. A., & Weissberg, R. P. (2007). The impact of after-school programs that seek to promote personal and social skills. CASEL, University of Illinois at Chicago. Retrieve from

Greenberg, M. T., Weissburg, R. P., O'Brien, M. U., Zins, J. E., Fredericks, L., Resnik, H., & Elias, M. J. (2003). Enhancing school-based prevention and youth development through coordinated social, emotional, and academic learning. American Psychologist, 58, 466-474.

Kaminski, Ruth and Cummings, Kelli (2007).Assessment forLearning: Using General Outcome Measures, Threshold, pg.1

Kaminski, R. A., & Good, R. H. (1998). Assessing early literacy skills in a Problem-Solving Model: Dynamic indicators of basic early literacy skills. In. M. R. Shinn (Ed.), Advanced Applications of Curriculum-Based Measurement (pp. 113-142). New York: Guilford Press.

Reynolds, C.R., & Kampaus, R.W. (2002). The clinician's guide to the Behavioral Assessment System for Children (BASC). NY: Guilford Publications.

"School-Wide Positive Behavior Support and Response to Intervention" by George Sugai, Ph.D. University of Connecticut, Storrs OSEP Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports Center for Behavioral Education and Research

Weissburg and Zins Effects of Social and Emotional Learning on Academic Success, 2003. JE Zins, MR Bloodworth, RP Weissberg, HJ Walberg - Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, 2007 - Page 1. JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL CONSULTATION, 17(2&3), 191-210